ap human geography textbook pdf chapter 3 : The name of this chapter is Migration. We’ll find answer some of important key questions including-
- What is migration?
- Why do people migrate?
- Where do people migrate?
- How do governments affect migration?
ap human geography textbook pdf chapter 3
Movement in inherently geographical. Movement changes people, as well as the way they see themselves in the world. Movement changes places, including the places the people left and the places where they go.
The movement of humans takes several forms. Mobility ranges from local to global- from the daily to once in a lifetime. Mobility has increased markedly over the last century. With greater mobility, people broaden their perspectives and widen the horizons of others, thus
encouraging further mobility.
All movement involves leaving home. The three types of movement we discuss in this section vary based on time away from home. Cyclic movement involves shorter periods away from home; periodic movement involves longer periods away from home; and migration involves a degree of permanence the other two do not: with migration, the mover may never return “home.”
Cyclic movement involves journeys that begin at our home base and bring us back to it. T he great majority of people have a daily routine that takes them through a regular sequence of short moves within a local area. These moves create what geographers call activity spaces. The scale of activity space varies across societies.
Why do people migrate?
Migration can be the result of voluntary action, a conscious decision to move from one place to the next. It can also be the result of an involuntary action, a forced movement chosen by one group of people for another group of people.
Forced migration involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice. Voluntary migration occurs after a migrant weighs options and choices even if desperately or not so rationally, and can be analyzed and understood as a series of options or choices that result in movement.
The distinction between forced and voluntary migration is not always clear-cut. The enormous European migration to the United States during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often cited as a prime example of voluntary migration. However, some European migration can be construed as forced.
The British treatment of the Irish during their colonial rule over Ireland can be seen as political persecution, which is a cause for forced migration. During British colonialism in Ireland, the British took control of nearly all of the Irish Catholic lands and discouraged the operation of the Catholic Church in Ireland.
Until 1829, the British enforced penal laws preventing Irish Catholics from buying land, voting, or carrying weapons. The mass exodus of migrants from Ireland to North America in the mid-1 800s can be seen as forced, both because of the British treatment of the Irish and because of the potato famine, but it can also be seen as voluntary in that the Irish chose to go to North America.
Where do people migrate?
It is tempting to reduce the flow of migration to simple economics: a chance for a job in another place trumps the lack of a job at home. However, migration is much more complicated than that. Migration depends on
various push and pull factors, ranging from persecution in civil war to environmental disaster, from dis-empowerment in the home to discrimination in the country, and each migration flow is helped or hampered by existing networks and governmental actions.
In t his section of the chapter, we examine where people migrate, that is, the destinations they choose. At the global, regional, and national scales, we can see several major migration flows over the past 500 years, flows where hundreds of thousands of people migrated along the same general path.
We focus on the destinations in these major migration allows. As we discuss migration flows at the global, regional, and national scales in this chapter, remember that these flows give only an overview of migration. At the local and household scales, each individual or family migration required life-altering decisions, and those decisions fostered global change.
Before 1500, long-distance, global-scale migration occurred haphazardly, typically in pursuit of spices, fame, or exploration . To put exploration in perspective, note that a complete map of the world’s continents did not exist until the early 1800s. European explorers, who included surveyors and cartographers, played a major role in finally mapping the world.
On the heels of exploration came European colonization, a physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control
of the people and the land.
First, Europeans colonized the Americas and the coasts of Africa and parts of Asia from the 1500s to the 1800s. T hen, Europeans colonized interior Africa and Asia starting in the late 1800s and into the 1900s.
How do governments affect migration?
The control of immigration, legal and illegal, the granting of asylum to asylum-seeking refugees, and the fate of cross-border refugees, permanent and temporary, have become hot issues around the world. In Europe, right-wing political parties whip up anti-immigrant sentiment.
In California, the state government demands federal monies to provide services for hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants; if the federal government cannot control its borders, they argue, states should not have to foot the bill. In Cuba, the Castro regime has used migration as a threat: in August 1994, Castro threatened to open
Cuba’s doors to a flood of emigrants who would invariably all flee to the United States. And in the United States today, the federal government faces reproach both from those who want to stop the flow of migration from Mexico and those who argue for opening the United States’ doors for migrants from humanitarian crises, including Haiti.
ap human geography textbook pdf chapter 3
Efforts to restrict migration flows are nothing new. Media coverage, political debates, and political wrangling only make it seem so. In the fourteenth century, China built the Great Wall in part as a defensive measure but also as a barrier to emigration (by Chinese beyond the sphere of their authorities) and immigration (mainly by Mongol “barbarians” from the northern plains). The Berlin wall, the Korean DMZ (demilitarized zone), the fences along the Rio Grande-all are evidence of governments’ desire to control the movement of people across their borders.
In the last 500 years, humans have traveled the globe, mapped it, connected it through globalization, and migrated across it. In this chapter, we discussed major global, regional, and national migration flows. Migration can occur as a result of a conscious decision, resulting in a voluntary migration flow, or migration can occur under duress, resulting in forced migration.
Both kinds of migration have left an indelible mark on the world and on its cultural landscapes. Governments attempt to strike a balance among the need for migrant labor, the desire to help people in desperate circumstances, and the intent to stem the tide of migration.
As the world’s population mushrooms, the volume of migrants will expand. In an increasingly open and interconnected world, neither physical barriers nor politically motivated legislation will hold back tides that are as old as human history. Migrations will also further complicate an already complex global cultural pattern-raising questions about identity, race, ethnicity, language, and religion, the topics we turn to in the next four chapters.
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